vinyl record player

If being a fan of music, you must hear about “vinyl record player”. This kind of listening to music used to be so popular, as they provide a really good quality of music sound.

However, with the development of technology, the young generation seem to listen to the easy and facile music more, by just listen through MP3 players, or on laptops. The existence of vinyl record player seems to be narrowed down little by little.

Music

If you are a true music listener, you can never look over this form of music listening. The feeling it gives to you is much different, and high-level than the normal form. That is the reason why you should join hand to maintain this beautiful kinds of listening form.

If you find it not persuading enough to buy a vinyl, look at some advantages that we can list as follows:

  • Showing the love to music.

At first it has no connection between “vinyl” and your music love. However, through record player reviews from those who used to have experienced to listen to a vinyl even one time, it is the way to enjoy music completely and intensely. This device can produce the epic music with so warm, classic and pure sound that you can barely resist.

  • Showing personal style.

There are also the vintage vinyls, beside the modern vinyls, and truly to say, they look cool and stylist. Of course the main reason for buying a record player is from its sound. However, we can not deny that they can be a very style item to possess. A vinyl, especially wooden vinyl can be a perfect decorating item for your room or your home.

  • Improving good atmosphere.

It’s hard to create a relaxing and harmonizing atmosphere for a room, but with a record player, things come much easier. It helps to create a cozy and artistic environment can give you instant mood of happiness and satisfaction.

  • Not being a dime a dozen.

Listening to some MP3 tracks through a USB plugging and placing is a needle on a vinyl turntable to your guests. Think about what make you more unique and chiastic? A vinyl record player can be smooth and modern, but classic and with character at the same time. It is great way to show your one-in-a-million lifestyle to people, as a personal brand of yourself.

It is actually not difficult to buy a record player, but not easy as you may think. As there are a lot of brands and types of record players on the market right now, you may be confused or drowned with tons of items you have never known before.

The most suited advice for you is making some researches on the internet, before going out for shopping. You must know what is a turntable, a needle, a record player, as well as its genres, purposes, capacities, designs…

Budget is also a factor to affect your shopping process. Try to think in advance the price that you expect to be. Do not waste your time and money for a wrong record player. It the player is not compatible in speed or size to your favorite album, it is no more a decorating item in your room.

Finally, it is no actual reason to drive you buy a record player, but your real demand and need. The good thing is, if you know how to preserve and protect, it will last for such a long time without any defects or breaking down. There is some easy tips for maintaining the quality of a vinyl record players that you can find on the internet.

Wish you to have the best experience with your new record player, if you ever decide to.

Recommended: DEWALT DCF815S2 12-Volt Max 1/4-Inch Impact Driver Kit Review

It’s been 48 years since Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp. introduced the world’s first portable electric hacksaw, which later became the company’s trademark tool, the Sawzall. Last year, the company added another first with the release of an 18-volt cordless version. And Milwaukee’s not alone. DeWalt Industrial Tools has released its new 18-volt cordless reciprocating saw. Both models promise to deliver what users want from their cordless tools – more power, long run time, and minimal vibration. Do they succeed?

To find out, we turned the tools over to BUILDER’s Tool Testers – three of the biggest framing companies in the country. Our testers, Ace Carpentry in Manassas, Va.; Nicholas Lane Contractors in Buena Park, Calif.; and Schuck & Sons in Glendale, Ariz., together frame more than 4,600 houses a year, so we were confident the tools would get a good workout. And they did.

Our testers evaluated the saws side by side to compare their power, run time, vibration, and reliability. They used the tools in typical residential framing applications: cutting door plates, adjusting blocking, and notching laminated veneer and parallel strand lumber. Here’s what our testers had to say.

Power

Let’s deal with power first. The testers’ responses on this question varied. Ace Carpentry thought the DeWalt saw had enough power to cut dimensional framing lumber but had problems notching laminated veneer lumber. Schuck & Sons, however, said the cordless version had more power than the corded one. While all testers agreed the Milwaukee Sawzall had enough power to make the cuts, Ace’s testers said the tool’s power didn’t last long enough.

Run Time

Which leads to run dine. Again, the testers’ answers to this question varied. Testers at Nicholas Lane Contractors and Schuck & Sons said the DeWalt tool had enough run time to work through a job site, but Ace’s testers thought the tool’s run time lasted far less than its recharge time. They had the same feeling about the Milwaukee Sawzall. “The battery charge lasted only 15 to 25 minutes,” says Mike Green, job foreman at Ace Carpentry. “That’s not enough when you’re cutting headers.”

Milwaukee’s marketing product manager Dave Selby says that a run time of 15 to 25 minutes is a fair amount in that type of application. “Cutting headers requires plunge cutting, which consumes a lot of power,” says Selby. “We estimate the tool will give you at least fifty 2 x 4 cuts on one charge.” Selby adds that other trades like HVAC contractors, plumbers, and electricians would get more run time for their applications, an opinion shared by his counterpart at DeWalt, Rich Matthews. “This tool is best suited for intermittent use,” he says. “In those applications one charge should last all day.” 

Vibration

Testers at Nicholas Lane Contractors and Schuck & Sons were impressed with how little the DeWalt saw vibrated. “The tool had very little vibration,” say our testers at Schuck & Sons. “It was user-friendly and got the job done.” The guys at Ace thought the tool performed like the corded version, but with a bit more vibration because of its lighter weight and higher blade speed. Matthews says the tool’s rubber grip and trigger are designed to dampen vibration. “We’ve made the tool fit more comfortably while in use in heavy applications.” As for the Milwaukee Sawzall, testers at Schuck & Sons said the tool ran with a high amount of vibration. “It has too much blade play,” they said. However, Ace’s testers said the Sawzall ran with less vibration than the DeWalt tool.

Reliability

All of our testers thought the tools performed well in the field and had enough power to make the cuts they needed. For heavy-duty use on a constant basis, however, our testers said the cordless recipro-saws couldn’t keep up in the field. “They’re excellent tools to make a few quick cuts in isolated locations,” say the Ace testers. “But I wouldn’t want to depend on the cordless versions for everyday use.” Both battery packs charged in less than 40 minutes as promised by the manufacturers. But because the average run time is 30 minutes, you should have an extra battery charging while using the tool.

Pros & Cons

Our testers had a few other comments as well. “It would be nice to have a second battery with both tools,” say the testers at Nicholas Lane Contractors. [TABULAR DATA OMITTED] “Include a shoulder strap on each tool,” say the guys at Ace. “Bring the price of the tools down,” say testers at Schuck & Sons.

What could be better? For one thing, the excessive blade speed of the DeWalt tool, according to some testers. “It doesn’t really need to run at 2800 strokes per minute,” say Ace’s testers. “It’s not consistent when it runs that high.” For the Milwaukee Sawzall, Ace’s testers thought the tool was too heavy for field work. It weighs about 8 to 9 pounds, depending on which model you choose. In contrast, DeWalt’s reciprocating saw weighs 6.5 pounds.

The Jury’s Still Out

When we asked our testers to recommend one of the cordless recipro-saws over the other, they couldn’t. One thing is clear: Our testers like the idea of a cordless reciprocating saw, but they want one that runs longer and comes with extra battery packs. For now, it seems, these tools are ideal for high work and punch-out, and for subs who are making intermittent cuts all day.

It has been seen that in Japan impact drivers were much known and were greatly used before by the people as it was unique in its similar manner. But it took much time by the Americans to get use to of it and to learn more benefits and features of this machine that was important for them to understand and study with high quality features. It took much more time to check for the screws to convert and change it into wood especially the most that is decking. Porter Cable is much known and famous businesses of America that are used with these drivers that are given by the abroad businesses. Consult best impact driver 2016 help you make decision.

  • TECHNOLOGY THAT WAS USED IN THE START:

This may also refer as hammer or anvil that is widely used and get the work on woodworking done easily. The drill that is of electric can be drilled easily in rotating motion manner and pounds the tool that is used that comes in contact with the hammer that is properly sludge. There are easy pieces available that are used properly and can be used easily with the impact driver and are basically producing cordless effect like that of drill that result in easy covering and that is comfortable as that of wood working work and equipments.

  • USE OF IMPACT DRIVER AT THIS AGE:

The 12 volt Makita is known to be in demand that is widely used and is a good impact driver and it is referred just like a gadget. It can be easily drive when needed and is used for checking the top of the wood. You may use device properly whenever needed and that help to get proper result without difficulty. This is a great tool that is widely used nowadays and is beneficial for the people as well.

  • PERFORMANCE OF IMPACT DRIVER FOR THE WORK:

These perform with the help of proper battery along with the energy used along with them. It grows widely and is used with the 9.6 volt so that it can keep the voltage properly and easily beneficial for the users. The main price which is used is important to note and it helps to enhance the variation occurs. It does not bother with the real prices that are of the resources of the Makita or even Bosch or any other type of branch. This is helpful with the help of Lithium ion technologies that are helpful with them to use and to get all the required benefits from.

  • REASON DUE TO WHICH IMPACT DRIVER IS KNOWN TO BE THE BEST AMONG ALL:

There is usually bare tool bodies linked with the producers usually and are with regards the wood working equipments with the battery on them and also with the rechargeable charger that helps to keep the cost low. This help people to utilize properly with the 18 Volt lithium ions and with the manufacturer of the battery as well and this tool is preferred as the best one among all and is usually used for various purposes and is helpful nowadays as well. This is the simple type due to no maintenance of the cash with the racks and with the batteries on them that is linked with the charger. There is an also not covered tool of such type and kind that possesses same type of battery for personal use.

  • EXPECTATIONS SEEN FOR THE IMPACT DRIVER AT THE PRESENT PERIOD:

There is incorporated pace runs that are offered by the producers that are usually known as Makita resources and are up to the mark and expectations. You must check for the screw that has been worked in shaft. Electric battery presence will be less as compared to the energy that is used. The cover of the tool is having 400 HP motor down that puts a person to get it drive to the city and helps to use the proper accelerator with the help of pedaling that is done on the ground. You may use other things for several works to get the benefits from them. You must improve the cost and utilize all the benefits that are provided by the manufacturer.

  • In the end:

The build of such type is different and is much more comfortable for the people and is beneficial as well instead of difficulty causing to people. It is more efficient than the others like that of the fixed tools of working for the woods and are much beneficial for personal use that provides comfort to the people.

Within earlier Oct 2010 Dewalt launched their own brand new type of 12v maximum energy resources. Amongst this particular discharge had been the Dewalt DCF815S2, a good 1/4″ impact driver using the guts as well as gumption to create mincemeat associated with it’s really expected debut as well as, possibly, the mincemeat cake from the existing competitors.

How does it work?

Having a small overhaul which techniques the actual device electric battery straight beneath the actual manage, this particular 12v impact driver has become much more compact as well as ergonomic desk compared to some of Dewalt’s prior equivalent produces. The actual somewhat lengthier manage is actually trim as well as comfy in order to hold and offers a well-balanced bottom for that driver. Evaluating only a measly 2. 3 pounds the actual driver is totally compact making the one thing ideal for use within uncomfortable areas as well as in most annoying restricted place. Becoming this type of completely light-weight, the Dewalt DCF815S2 can also be well suited for the cost to do business as well as time intensive programs.

Tips to working well:

  • A good impact driver is really an effective device usually utilized by the actual technicians with regard to loosening the actual nut products as well as mounting bolts that are trapped within theelectrical sockets.
  • Whenever you are searching for probably the most effective device they are driving pace in addition to effectiveness, after that impact drivers tend to be the most suitable.
  • If you’re asking yourself how you can choose the Dewalt DCF815S2 impact drivers, then you definitely are in the best location.
  • We’re right here that will help you help to make the best choice and choose the very best energy resources on the market that not just be enough your financial allowance restrictions, butadditionally, assist satisfy all of your duties from one chance.
  • Impact drivers are very more recent resources on the market with regards to the customer energy resources.
  • These types of impact drivers include effective torque, style, higher pace, electric battery technologies, and several additional brand new as well as well-liked functions.
  • Whenever your strategy to find the greatest impact driver for the power, understanding every detail regarding these types of the saw is essential.
  • To the good fortune, lots of range impact drivers tend to be available for sale in order to be enough the requirements associated with pace, style, energy, cost, along with other resources.
  • Impact drivers possess 1 mind-boggling benefit more than regular exercises as well as drivers: huge torque.
  • Absolutely no initial openings, absolutely no cheating. Dewalt DCF815S2 drivers help to make excellent exercises.
  • Along with little pieces, these people become the drill but from almost two times the actual rpm on most cordless
  • Along with larger pieces, these people stop into high-torque impact setting to help you lose interest a large pit having a little driver.
  • Having a regular driver, you need to get pounds at the rear of the actual mess as well as drive difficult.
  • The actual sludge hammer system which creates torque additionally produces a few headmistress.
  • Which means it’s not necessary to drive therefore difficult to prevent cam-out. Ideal for one-handed, stretch-and-drive circumstances.

To sum up:

A good impact driver may manage almost any work, plus some of our testers have upon the market their own aged drivers. However whenever higher torque is not required, the majority of us prefer to steer clear of the sound as well as take regular cordless exercises or even drivers rather the Dewalt DCF815S2 is very good for users.

RECIPROCATING SAWS

Reciprocating saws cut wood, masonry and metal, depending on the blade used. They are commonly used for demolition, framing and rough-in work. A reciprocating saw’s blade extends horizontally from the front of the saw, cutting with a back-and-forth motion.

It is good for ripping and cross-cutting, but lacks the control achieved from the platform design of the sabre saw. However, the blade will reach into close areas where a sabre or circular saw would be unable to cut. Blade action usually goes to about 2,000 strokes per minute (spm), but some professional models go as high as 2,500 spm. Reciprocating saws are also available with keyless or quick-release blade clamps.

Reciprocating Saw Blades

The development of carbon steel, highspeed steel and bimetal blades gives the reciprocating saw blade more versatility in the materials it can cut.

Carbon steel blades are used primarily to cut soft woods and plastics. Carbon steel is flexible but is not strong enough to cut through metals, making it a poor choice for wood filled with lots of nails.

High-speed steel (HSS) blades are made from heat-treated metal and are good for cutting through most metals, plastics and fiber glass, but the blades are brittle and easily broken.

Bimetal blades are a combination of carbon steel and HSS. Bimetal blades use the more durable carbon steel for the majority of the blade, with a wire-thin strip of HSS laser welded onto the edge of the blade. The teeth are cut in the HSS, making the blade both durable and versatile. One drawback to bimetal blades is their cost. They are more expensive than either carbon or HSS but can last as much as three times longer.

Carbide-tipped blades are not particularly durable, so they are recommended for cutting nail-free wood, nonferrous metal, plastic and fiber glass.

Blade quality can also be determined by comparing blade thickness, tooth shape and spacing (teeth per inch). The saw will generally cut faster with fewer teeth per inch in the blade. Wood-cutting blades are typically .050[inches] thick, while the standard for metal-cutting blades is .035[inches] thick.

STATIONARY AND BENCH TOOLS

Stationary and bench tools perform the same functions as portable power tools. They are bigger, heavier and handle major jobs. Stationary tools come with or are mounted on tables or stands specifically designed for the tool. Bench tools are slightly smaller than stationary tools. They are mounted on workbenches and can be moved more easily than stationary tools.

Bench tools fill a void, both in price and performance, between portable power tools and stationarypower tools. Products include table saws, band saws, chop saws, sanders, wood lathes, drill presses and bench grinders.

As consumers move up the d-i-y learning curve, they want the features and performance of a stationary power tool, but at a substantially lower price. Because bench tools can usually be moved from workshop to job site by one person, weight and ease of set-up are both factors when selecting a bench tool.

Radial Arm Saws

A radial arm saw uses a circular saw blade, but instead of feeding the material into the blade, the item to be cut remains stationary and the saw travels through the cut, pulled across the track on the radial arm.

The cutting portion of the blade is rotating toward the operator. The cut is made by pulling the saw across the material. This puts the pressure on the material downward against the cutting platform and a fence at the rear of the platform. It pushes away from the operator.

Because the radial arm saw virtually cuts backwards, it develops its own pull through the cut so that the operator may wind up holding the saw back rather than pulling it through the cut.

For ripping longer pieces of wood, the saw can be pivoted 90 degrees and locked into place on the radial arm. The material is fed in on the upward moving side of the blade to prevent the blade from pulling the wood through and binding.

If the wood binds, the saw will “kick” it back toward the operator. To prevent this, radial arm saws are equipped with an anti-kickback device that allows the wood to move into the saw but locks into it if the direction is reversed, driving it down onto the table and preventing operator injury.

Ripping width is limited by the length of the arm, which is usually 24[inches] or less. On a 24[inches] saw, one portion of the material being ripped must be less than 24[inches] to fit between the blade and the fence at the rear of the platform.

Cross cuts are also limited by the length of the arm. A 24[inches] arm would allow for a 12-3/4[inches] cross cut, as the center of the saw blade will not travel from one extreme of the arm to the other. A radial arm saw is particularly effective for mitering, and is usually equipped with stop mechanisms at 30-degree and 45-degree angles, plus a locking device that allows setting of any angle for the arm.

Accessories can be added to the radial arm saw to perform dadoing, sanding, shaping, sabre sawing, surfacing, jointing, horizontal boring and over-arm routing.

Circular Saws

Circular saws are designed to make straight cuts on materials that are difficult to cut by hand. The saw’s size denotes the largest size blade that can be used with it.

Most circular saws come with or can be equipped with a rip fence to maintain a uniform width of cut on long passes. Quality saws have an ejector chute that routes sawdust to the rear or to the side, away from the work, instead of leaving it to obscure the cutting line. Several manufacturers also offer portable circular saws that, like drills, are powered by a rechargeable battery pack.

 

Saws are classified by blade size and duty ratings. Generally, blade sizes range from 51/2[inches] to 10[inches] diameter, with 5-1/2[inches] and 7-1/4[inches] the most popular. The greater the blade diameter, the thicker the material it will cut. Better models have higher amperage and rpm ratings. Also like drills, saws are rated by their amperage, which can go all the way up to 15.0 amps for some heavy-duty models. High-end models also feature an electric brake that stops the blade from rotating as soon as the trigger is released.

Worm-drive saws feature the motor at the rear of the blade and are for heavy-duty applications.

Some circular saw models are also engineered to give the user the best, clearest line of sight. Some have features such as windows or open areas so the user can see the blade as it cuts the wood and rear-exit cords to keep the cord away from the line of sight and work surface. Another popular feature is a tilting base for more flexibility in cutting.

Circular Blades

Blades are made of tempered, tensioned steel, and are flat, hollow or taper ground. Circular blades are available for almost any cutting requirement. Taper- or hollow-ground blades are machined, so that the body of the blade passes through the cut made by the teeth without binding.

Teeth on flat-ground blades are alternately set (right and left) to prevent binding by making the cut wider than the blade.

Carbide-tipped blades last up to 20 times as long as ordinary blades and are useful if a great deal of work is to be done on plywood or hardwood. Technological developments in recent years have made the carbide coating even harder, giving extended working life to circular blades. These blades are not to be used on masonry or where nails may be encountered.

 

There are also thin-kerf carbide blades available now that give smoother cuts and work well on low-powered tools.

Different types of abrasive cut-off wheels are used for cutting ferrous metals, masonry, glazed materials and ceramic tile. These wheels are attached directly to the saw in the same manner as a blade.

A two-in-one cut-off wheel is unlike the conventional rigid type and acts as an all-purpose cutting and sanding disc. This wheel, consisting of resilient nylon mesh impregnated with silicone carbide grit, is flexible, shatterproof, and can be used for smoothing, shaping and cutting most materials. It also may be used as a power drill attachment.

SABRE SAWS OR JIG SAWS

The sabre saw, also known as a jig saw, has a small, thin blade that cuts with an up-and-down motion, making it ideal for irregularities and scroll work, as well as for ripping and cross-cutting. Units can usually cut through 1[inches] hardwood and 1-1/2[inches] softwood with no trouble.

Quality saws include variable speed controls to accommodate plastics and metals, keyless blade releases and tilting bases. In addition, top units have larger strokes, often up to 1[inches] in stroke length, and provisions to narrow the slot in the shoe where the blade works to prevent splintering of the wood. A roller support behind the blade, counter balancing and orbited actions are other features found on heavy-duty versions. Some models also feature a dust blower to clear the work area of debris as the user cuts.

Good sabre saws will usually operate at up to 3,000 strokes per minute. The sabre saw does not have the cutting speed of the circular saw and is more difficult to keep in a straight line.

Orbital actions are now found on sabre saws as well as reciprocating saws. They cut much faster in orbital mode but leave a rougher cut. Orbital mode should only be used when cutting wood.

Sabre Saw Blades

Carbon steel blades are used for cutting most woods and some plastics. High-speed steel (HSS) blades are used for curing metal, fiber glass, and abrasive and thin plastics. The heat-treated, hardened quality of the steel in HSS blades makes them less resistant to dulling.

Fleam ground blades have “set” teeth that alternate left to right and provide extra speed in cutting. Hollow ground blades have teeth that are lined straight with side clearance for extra grinding ability, which produces a good finish.

Special blades are available and may be provided with an adjustable platform to allow cutting variations to 45 degrees.

Heavy-duty 1/4[inches] drills have heavier bearings to handle tougher jobs.

3/8[inches] Drills

These drills have more speed but less power than 1/2[inches] drills. In addition to extra chuck capacity, 3/8[inches] drills are normally built with double-reduction gear systems to provide more torque and to operate at lower speeds, generally about one-half the rpm of a 1/4[inches] drill. The slower speed eases starting holes in slick surfaces and reduces drill bit burnout when drilling with larger diameter bits in steel. They are usually priced between regular and heavy-duty 1/4[inches] drills.

Three-eighths-inch drills usually handle more attachments than 1/4[inches] and can perform most of the jobs a 1/4[inches] does; sanding and buffing are about the only jobs needing a 1/4[inches] drill’s higher speed. Heavy-duty 3/8[inches] drills with reversing action and screwdriver attachments are also available. Keyless chucks are becoming more common on 3/8[inches] and 1/2[inches] drills.

1/2[inches] Drills

Generally used by tradesmen, the high torque and slow speeds of 1/2[inches] drills make large holes in wood or metal. These drills, because of their slow speed, provide good power units for hole saws.

In drilling large holes in wood beams, self-feeding bits are frequently used to reduce force required by the operator. Reversing action permits jammed drill bits to be backed out easily from wood or masonry.

Hammer Drills

Hammer drills cut quickly and easily into concrete, stone, block and brick. They are called hammer drills because while turning, the drill vibrates the chuck back and forth or side to side to help the bit chip while it is drilling. Hammers with the dual function of slow drilling are especially useful to the handyman, since they will drill and ream wood and steel.

Hammer drills have a conventionally geared chuck. The vibrating action speeds the drilling in most concrete or masonry products when equipped with a carbide-tipped drill bit. Most models have a “mode” selector allowing the operator to choose rotation only, as in a conventional drill, or “hammer drill” coupling the vibrating action with the rotary motion. Some models offer a third choice of hammer only, which in some cases can accommodate chisel and scraper attachments.

A hammer drill should not be confused with the rotary hammer professional tool, which has drilling capacities of 1/4[inches] up to core bits of 6[inches] diameter. These larger hammers have unique bit drive and retention methods rather than the conventional geared chuck. When drilling in poured concrete, for example, a rotary hammer can drill faster with less vibration than a hammer drill.

Depending on the manufacturer, hammer drills range from very low speeds for controlled, fine drilling and impacting to highspeed drilling and hammering for fast, productive work. The speed of hammer drills and rotary hammers is measured in rpm for drill action and bpm (blows per minute) for impact action.

Some hammer drills have variable speed controls. Chuck sizes range from 1/4[inches] to 1/2[inches]. Make sure you remind customers to use safety glasses, earplugs and antivibration gloves when working with these tools.

Angle Drills

Angle drills are designed for tight fits and close-quarter drilling. Some models feature angle attachment that rotates to drill in any position, while a side handle allows one-hand operation and easy control. They come in 1/2[inches] or 3/8[inches] drills.

Impact Wrenches

Impact wrenches, long used in commercial applications, have applications in the home and on the farm. These tools are normally used only occasionally by d-i-yers and offer potential as rental items.

Corded wrenches deliver 2,000 impacts per minute, utilizing a socket attached to the drive shaft. Quality is critical since the wrench must have enough power to loosen tight bolts, and the motor must be protected against burnout. Cordless models are also available.

Screwdrivers

Although some drills function with screwdriver attachments, heavy-duty corded screwdrivers are also available. Most common are variable-speed, reversible drywall screwdrivers, designed for driving drywall, decking and other self-drilling screws. They feature no load speed up to 4,000 rpms.

The term “portable drill” generally refers to both corded and cordless models. There are many different types of drills that fit into this category including drill/drivers and hammer drills. A drill/driver is designed with added features to handle screwdriving jobs.

Drill Ratings

Drill ratings are based on chuck capacity and motor load limit. Chuck capacity is the most obvious, but it does not tell the whole story. Speed and torque, or twisting power, must be considered.

For example, a drill rated at 1/4[inches] not only means that this is the largest diameter shank that will fit the chuck, but indicates the largest size hole recommended to be drilled with a 1/4[inches] bit in 1/4[inches] thick mild steel. The peripheral speed of the drill bit increases with the size; therefore the bit determines the rated drill capacity.

Motor load limit is classified light-, medium- or heavy-duty. Amp ratings and bearing construction are a better method than chuck size for determining how to classify a drill.

Horsepower ratings are determined individually for each tool according to its use, amperage, torque and type of bearing.

Ratings vary by manufacturer. General ranges include 1/7 hp to 1/4 hp for 1/4[inches] and 3/8[inches] drills, 1/3 hp to 7/8 hp for 1/2[inches] units. The rating listed on a drill nameplate usually includes amperage. The higher the amp rating the more powerful the drill. Drills rated at two amps are generally considered light-duty units, while five-amp units are for heavy-duty work.

Drill Features

While it does not play a role in determining a drill’s power, another factor to consider when recommending a drill to a customer is the composition of the drill’s gears. Less expensive drills will traditionally have plastic gears. More expensive models will feature metal gears, designed for longer life. Even on some high-end models, however, high-impact plastic gears are used to make the drill lighter, and with some plastics can be just as durable as metal.

The chuck holds the bit or screwdriver tip in place. Chucks come in a variety of sizes and are rated by the diameter of the largest bit shank they can accommodate (from 1/4[inches] to 1/2[inches]). There are two types available: keyed or keyless.

A keyed chuck is operated by using a rotary key to tighten and loosen the chuck, which holds the drill bit or driver. Keyed chucks are common on heavy-duty drills. The biggest drawback to a keyed chuck is that it is easy to lose the key. Because of this problem, many drills come with a special compartment built into the drill to hold the key.

Keyless chucks require no keys to tighten or loosen but are operated by hand. The only drawback to keyless chucks is that they occasionally stick and become difficult to tighten or loosen.

Variable speeds offer many advantages in drill design, the most important of which is the ease with which a hole can be started in masonry, ceramics and steels, particularly where curved or compound surfaces (such as drilling a piece of pipe) are encountered. Customers should be advised, however, that an electronic speed reduction does not increase drilling torque or power.

Variable-speed drills offer speed or torque control from zero to maximum revolutions per minute. Usually, variance is achieved by varying pressure on the trigger switch. There are some tools, however, where speed is set by dial control. Drill/drivers feature a high-torque setting for driving screws and high-speed setting for drilling holes.

Most 1/4[inches] drills operate between 1,600 and 2,800 rpm; speeds for 3/8[inches] units range from 650 to 1,350 rpm; and those of the 1/2[inches] model are around 500 rpm. Depending on such factors as load, drill size and material, speed drops from 30 percent to 50 percent in use.

Many portable drills feature reversing action, greatly increasing their versatility. This flexibility allows the operator to drive and remove screws, nuts and bolts, drill and tap threads in metal and do other jobs not possible with conventional drills. The chuck is locked in place so it will not spin off when using the reverse action.

Some drills also allow the operator to select desired speed or rpm by turning a small adjusting knob built into the trigger or switch. This makes it possible to maintain a preselected speed as required for specific applications, such as slow speed for drilling in stainless steel or glass.

Portable drills also come with a variety of handles. The most common handle design is the pistol grip. As the name implies, pistolgrip handles are shaped like a pistol and are good for most common drilling/driving needs. D-handle drills have the trigger grip enclosed. Other drill handles are straight or right-angled for drilling in difficult, tight locations. Some heavy-duty drills or hammer drills feature a pivoting handle located at the front of the drill so the user can apply extra force.

Another feature is a built-in level that allows the user to drill a straight, accurate hole. Other drills come with lighted rings around the chuck that illuminate a dimly lit work area.

1/4[inches] Drills

A good quality 1/4[inches] drill has sufficient power to drill holes in concrete, metal, plastic and other materials. Accessories and attachments make it a fine tool for shop and home, however, 1/4[inches] drills have turned into a high-speed specialty tool for sheet metal trades.

Quality features include geared key chuck, aluminum or heavy-duty plastic housing and heavy-duty reinforced cord. Helical gears are not needed on 1/4[inches] drills since they are not high-torque tools like 1/2[inches] drills or circular saws.

Convenient and easy to operate, cordless power tools provide substantial power for home fix-it jobs and professional applications. In the past decade, the popularity of cordless tools among both d-i-yers and professionals has exploded.

Today, virtually every type of tool, from drills and screwdrivers to reciprocating saws and framing hailers, is available in cordless models. The majority of cordless tools are powered by battery packs that can be charged by plugging them into a recharging unit, which plugs into any 110-120V outlet, Some chargers fit into cigarette lighter sockets. Other portable tools can be powered by disposable fuel cartridges that insert into the tool’s handle and power a piston that drives the tool.

The lightweight, easy operation and lower prices of cordless tools have resulted in increasing demand. Versatility and savings have been further increased with the “power package.” A single rechargeable battery adapts to various product heads, offering substantial savings.

Batteries And Charging Units

The most common power source for today’s cordless power tools is a rechargeable battery. The rechargeable batteries used for most power tools are actually a number of small batteries, or cells, linked together into a battery pack. The batteries that make up the pack are each 1.2 volts. So, eight batteries linked together constitute a 9.6-volt battery pack.

Most power tools, such as drill/drivers and saws, are powered by battery packs that range in power from 7.2 volts to 18 volts; some cordless screwdrivers may even be powered by 1.2- or 3.4-volt batteries. Generally, the higher the voltage rating, the more powerful the tool and the longer the battery can last without recharging. Salespeople should remind consumers that the more strenuous the job, the greater effect it will have on the operating time and efficiency of the tool. Also, horsepower and battery strength are not the only measures of a cordless tool’s performance; the efficiency of the motor must be taken into account as well. Another concern some customers may have with buying a higher-voltage cordless tool is the added weight of a larger battery pack.

Charging units work by coursing electricity through the battery pack. Although charging units do restore power to a battery pack, in general, batteries lose a little bit of their charge daily, whether or not the tool is being used. They should be recharged before they discharge completely, since the new nickel-cadmium batteries can be partially discharged and recharged without harm.

Other advances have also resulted in shortened recharging times. Some tools are available with quick charge power packs that cut this time down to 15 minutes. Fifteen-minute chargers do reduce the life of the battery and are more expensive than standard chargers.

Better-quality cordless drills are now being designed with a fan for continuous use. Some batteries feature a built-in LED readout that lets the user know how much charge remains in the battery.

Most manufacturers will sell battery packs and charging units with their cordless tools and also make replacement packs and chargers available separately.

Environmental concerns have made the recycling of cordless batteries an increasingly important issue. Since some states and municipalities require batteries to be recycled, many suppliers have developed recycling programs. For more information on battery recycling, contact the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association at (800) 225-7722 or the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corp. at (800) 8-BATTERY or on-line at www.rbrc.com.

Home center and hardware stores must inform their clients of the trends and emerging technologies used for power tools and other portable machines. Manufacturers have developed products that are simple and easy to operate. Thus, employees must be knowledgeable on the types of power tools, safety precautions and the uses of cordless and portable drills, grinders and drill presses. However, cordless tools have become one of the favorite products in the market that manufacturers are designing tools that implement the the cordless concept.

Ergonomics is the industry buzz word in tool development. From both the d-i-y and professional channels, customers have been demanding tools that are not as cumbersome, require less effort to use and are naturally contoured to fit comfortably in the hand.

Manufacturers have responded to these demands by incorporating plastic polymers and lighter, stronger metals to develop tools that weigh less but are equally, if nol more, durable.

Manufacturers have also added features to tools that help promote ease of use. Many drills now sport levels to ensure straight, even holes; circular saws are engineered to allow users to see the blade as it cuts; and sanders come equipped with fatigue reducing handles and dust-collection systems.

Cordless tools continue to rise in popularity, and retailers now operate in an increasingly competitive market for the category. As a result of this increase in competition, manufacturers have improved the quality of their tools and offer a wider selection at better prices. Because of the expanded selection, many retailers choose to carry several different brands of power tools, although the products are highly price-sensitive.

When it comes to cordless tools, consumers seem to be saying more is better. D-i-yers are opting for tools that were once used only by professionals. Cordless drills are now available in 18-volt models, and even tools such as reciprocating saws are available in cordless models.

With an increasingly price- and product-savvy consumer seeking advice on tool purchases, it has become imperative that sales-floor employees be able to understand and explain the different features and benefits of power tool products. The section that follows should provide the foundation for that knowledge.

ALL ABOUT POWER TOOLS

Quality in power tools is determined by physical construction and motor capacity. A light-duty unit might be satisfactory for a casual user, but it would have an extremely limited life in heavy-duty applications. As consumers become more experienced d-i-yers, they tend to move to higher-quality tools.

For more information on the safe use of power tools, contact the Power Tool Institute

Housing

Quality housings are usually die-cast aluminum, high-impact plastic or a combination. Die-cast aluminum is especially popular in gear cases for cool running and for holding the gear train in a precise location. A glass-filled nylon housing offers better impact resistance than aluminum.

Double-insulated plastic is a non-conductor and has lower heat retention. Some power units, while not double insulated, feature plastic-coated handles for this reason.

Housings should have adequate ventilation and exhaust ports.

Insulation

In the event of an electrical short, by avoiding contact with metallic surfaces the operator is protected from shock by a double-insulated housing. As a result, double-insulated tools do not require three-wire grounding cords.

In a grounded tool, the motor windings are insulated from the housing, and a three-wire cord is used to ground the housing in the event a short does occur. The tool must be plugged into a socket with a ground. If an extension cord is used, it also must be a three-wire grounded cord. Most high-amppower tools work best on 12-gauge wire, especially where a long cord (50 feet or more) is used. The gauge of the wire is imprinted on the cord cover or can be read on the cord label.

Motor

There are more than 150 variations of motors that drive power tools. Among the quality features are welded connections, built-in fans and commutators welded to motor windings.

Bearings can be oil-impregnated brass or steel ball, needle or roller bearings, with ball and needle bearings in higher-quality motors.

A higher horsepower usually means more power or torque at a given speed as well as less wear on the motor under prolonged use. Power tools such as drills and saws will have a range of horsepower ratings with minimal horsepower for the occasional d-i-yers through maximum power for commercial uses. Amperes can also be an important factor in determining a tool’s efficiency. Similar to a tool’s horsepower, the higher the amp rating on a tool, the higher its power output. A tool’s type of gears and bearings are other measures of power and quality.

Switches

Switches used on power tools are on/off, multi-speed and variable-speed. On drills, a reversing switch is frequently used. A toggle switch merely turns the unit on or off, providing only one operating speed. Trigger switches are usually designed to spring to the off position when finger pressure is released.

Multi-speed switches allow the user to select two or more speeds. The switch usually must be manually moved to the off position to stop the motor.

Variable-speed switches allow speed settings at any level from minimum to maximum by varying the pressure on the power trigger. This allows slow starting for situations such as starting a hole in metal with a drill. Some units are provided with a switch lock to set speed for continuous operation at a specific level.

Some premium grade tools, both corded and cordless, are using variable speed switches with “electronic feedback” that will keep the tool working at the speed desired under load.

Most higher-quality drills, saws and other tools feature an electric brake that immediately stops the chuck, blade or bit from turning when the trigger is released to avoid over-tightening or cutting.

In some high-quality tools, the switches are protected by encased triggers that seal out dust that might collect from cutting or drilling into materials.

Rockwell Test

Customers may ask what the “Rockwell hardness test” figure means; manufacturers may quote it in their literature.

Rockwell testing is one of the best-known ways of determining how hard a tool’s metal is. The Rockwell system has several scales, designated by a letter. Each scale designates a test carried out with different static loads and penetrating devices.

The one encountered most frequently in this industry is the C scale, and ratings can run from C20 to C70; the higher the number, the harder the metal. For soft steels of medium or low carbon, the B scale is used. For extremely hard metals such as tungsten carbide, the A scale is used.

Most hardware and tool ratings will range from the middle or high C30s (semi-hard) up to the C60s (very hard).